SCANDISK TYPE XCOPY check and repair drive, display the contents of an ASCII text file on screen commands to make the backup of your data or to make the image of entire drive to Copy files and directory trees


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Runs the SCANDISK disk-repair program.


To check and repair the current drive:



You should not scan the disk with CHKDSK or SCANDISK or any other disk scanning program if your disk is crashed or there is any logical error in your boot sectors like MBR, DBR, FAT or root directories are corrupted. It may make you data information distorted and can make it difficult to recover. Not only this you may not recover data completely

Generally the DOS version of Scandisk does not run while Windows is running. Rather than signaling an error, it automatically transfers control to the Windows version of Scandisk


The TYPE command is used to display the contents of an ASCII text file on screen.


TYPE filename

To display text files one screen at a time, pipe the output from a TYPE command to MORE. Let us see some examples:

To display the contents of ROMI.TXT:

TYPE romi.txt

If the file is too long to fit on a single screen:

TYPE romi.txt | MORE


This command is one of the most important commands when you want to make the backup of your important data or even you want to make the image of entire drive to Copy files and directory trees.

XCOPY is similar to the COPY command except that it has many more switches that allow considerable control over exactly what is copied when using wildcards.


XCOPY source [destination] [/Switches]

source The file(s) and Directories to be copied. Wildcards (* or ?) may be used.

destination The path and/or name(s) of new files. If destination is omitted, the files are copied to the current directory. If destination refers to a directory that does not exist, the directory is created. By default, XCOPY will confine its operation to files in the source directory.


                 What it does


Copies the complete subdirectory structure of source and all files therein.


Copies the complete subdirectory structure of source and all files therein but does not copy empty subdirectories.


Copies the subdirectory structure of source but does not copy any files and does not copy empty subdirectories. To include empty subdirectories, use with the /E switch.


Only copies files with the archive attribute set.


Only copies files with the archive attribute set, turning off the archive attribute of the source files.


Includes files with hidden and system attributes set.


Copies files without resetting the read-only attribute, if set.


Overwrites read-only files.


Only copies files in source that already exist in destination. Can be used with /D to update files with more recent versions.



Only copies files with a 'last modified date' the same as, or later than, date. If date is not specified, all files are copied except for same-named files in the destination directory that have a more recent 'last modified date' than the one in source.


Forces destination to be treated as a directory. The file/directory prompt is suppressed.


Overwrites existing files without prompting.


Prompts before overwriting existing files.


Displays a prompt before starting to copy files.


Prompts for confirmation before creating each destination file.


Displays full source and destination file names while copying.


Does not display file names or any other messages while copying.


Continues copying even if errors occur.


Displays files to be copied but does not actually copy them.


Copy using the generated short names. This is necessary when copying from a VFAT volume to a FAT volume.


Verifies that new files are readable.

By default XCOPY will not copy files which have system or hidden attributes set and also copies of read-only files do not have the read-only attribute set, and all copied files have their archive attribute set. By default, XCOPY prompts before overwriting files in destination with files in source of the same name.

XCOPY also prompts for instructions if there is ambiguity whether destination is a directory or file. An ambiguity is seen when destination does not refer to an existing directory or end in a “\ ". For example a destination of name.ext could be either a file or a directory. Let us learn it better by the following examples.

To copy all files and subdirectories from the notes directory to the disk in drive a:

xcopy c:\notes a: /s
xcopy c:\notes\*.* a: /s

To copy all files and subdirectories from the notes directory created or modified since 9 dec 2002 to the disk in drive a:

xcopy c:\notes a: /s /d:9/12/02

Making the “Drive Image”

If you want to make the backup of your entire drive to another or you want to make image of your data of  drive “including Operating System and other installed software” to another hard disk, just try this:

  C:\>  Xcopy *  D: \I\E\C\H   

Here D: is supposed to be the Active partition of another hard disk. This will copy the whole data of the source drive (Including installed Operating System, Software, Document etc.) as image to the Destination Drive.

And after this if you boot your computer with the destination drive, it will work same as the source drive was working and it will show all the data that you were having in the source drive.


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BPB Publications, New Delhi, India
$69.00 (Including Shipping Charges, Cost of Book and Other expenses, Free Source Code CD included with the Book)

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